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Build a Model To Predict If a Customer Coming To Purchase a Loan is a Good Customer or Bad Customer

Context

Banks incur significant losses due to default in loans. This has led to a tightening up of loan underwriting and has increased loan rejection rates. The need for a better credit risk scoring model is also raised by banks.

The CNK bank has collected customer data for the past few years and wants to build a model to predict if a customer coming to purchase a loan is a good customer (will not default) or a bad customer (will default).


Reference: Great Learning


Data Dictionary

  • month - the month of purchase

  • credit_amount - amount for which loan is requested

  • credit_term - for how long customer wants a loan

  • age - age of the customer

  • sex - gender of the customer

  • education - education level of customer

  • product_type - for purchasing what type of product does the customer need a loan (0, 1, 2, 3, 4)

  • having_children_flg - if the customer has children or not

  • region - customer region category(0, 1, 2)

  • income - income of the customer

  • family_status - another, married, unmarried

  • phone_operator - mobile operator category(0, 1, 2, 3)

  • is_client - if the customer wanting to purchase a loan is our client or not

  • target - 1-bad customer, 0-good customer


Import Libraries

# To help with reading and manipulation of data
import numpy as np
import pandas as pd

# To help with data visualization
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import seaborn as sns

# To split the data
from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split

# To impute missing values
from sklearn.impute import SimpleImputer

# To build a Random forest classifier
from sklearn.ensemble import RandomForestClassifier

# To tune a model
from sklearn.model_selection import GridSearchCV
from sklearn.model_selection import RandomizedSearchCV

# To get different performance metrics
import sklearn.metrics as metrics
from sklearn.metrics import (
    classification_report,
    confusion_matrix,
    recall_score,
    accuracy_score,
    precision_score,
    f1_score,
)

# To suppress warnings
import warnings

warnings.filterwarnings("ignore")


Load and view dataset

df = pd.read_csv("Loanclients.csv")
data = df.copy()
data.head()

output:


data.info()

output:












# checking missing values in the data
data.isna().sum()

output:












The income variable has some missing values, we will impute them later

data["region"] = data["region"].astype("category")
data["phone_operator"] = data["phone_operator"].astype("category")
data["product_type"] = data["product_type"].astype("category")
# checking the distribution of the target variable
data["target"].value_counts(1)

output:






Splitting the data into X and y

# separating the independent and dependent variables
X = data.drop(["target"], axis=1)
y = data["target"]

# creating dummy variables
X = pd.get_dummies(X, drop_first=True)
# Splitting data into training, validation and test set:
# first we split data into 2 parts, say temporary and test
X_temp, X_test, y_temp, y_test = train_test_split(
    X, y, test_size=0.2, random_state=5, stratify=y
)

# then we split the temporary set into train and validation
X_train, X_val, y_train, y_val = train_test_split(
    X_temp, y_temp, test_size=0.2, random_state=5, stratify=y_temp
)

print(X_train.shape, X_val.shape, X_test.shape)

output:

(640, 30) (160, 30) (200, 30)


# Let's impute the missing values
imp_median = SimpleImputer(missing_values=np.nan, strategy="median")

# fit the imputer on train data and transform the train data
X_train["income"] = imp_median.fit_transform(X_train[["income"]])

# transform the validation and test data using the imputer fit on train data
X_val["income"] = imp_median.transform(X_val[["income"]])
X_test["income"] = imp_median.transform(X_test[["income"]])
# Checking class balance for whole data, train set, validation set, and test set
print("Target value ratio in y")
print(y.value_counts(1))
print("*" * 80)
print("Target value ratio in y_train")
print(y_train.value_counts(1))
print("*" * 80)
print("Target value ratio in y_val")
print(y_val.value_counts(1))
print("*" * 80)
print("Target value ratio in y_test")
print(y_test.value_counts(1))
print("*" * 80)

output:













Model evaluation criterion What does a bank want?

  • A bank wants to minimize the loss - it can face 2 types of losses here:

    • Whenever a bank lends money to a customer, they don't return it.

    • A bank doesn't lend money to a customer thinking a customer will default but in reality, the customer won't - opportunity loss.

Which loss is greater ?

  • Lending to a customer who wouldn't be able to pay back.

Since we want to reduce loan defaults we should use Recall as a metric of model evaluation instead of accuracy.

  • Recall - It gives the ratio of True positives to Actual positives, so high Recall implies low false negatives, i.e. low chances of predicting a bad customer as a good customer.

Hyperparameter Tuning Let's first build a model with default parameters and see it's performance

# model without hyperparameter tuning
rf = RandomForestClassifier(random_state=1)
rf.fit(X_train, y_train)

Let's check model's performance

# Checking recall score on train and validation set
print("Recall on train and validation set")
print(recall_score(y_train, rf.predict(X_train)))
print(recall_score(y_val, rf.predict(X_val)))
print("")

# Checking Precision score on train and validation set
print("Precision on train and validation set")
print(precision_score(y_train, rf.predict(X_train)))
print(precision_score(y_val, rf.predict(X_val)))

print("")

# Checking Accuracy score on train and validation set
print("Accuracy on train and validation set")
print(accuracy_score(y_train, rf.predict(X_train)))
print(accuracy_score(y_val, rf.predict(X_val)))

output:










  • The model is performing well on the train data but the performance on the validation data is very poor.

  • Let's see if we can improve it with hyperparameter tuning.


Grid Search CV

  • Hyperparameter tuning is also tricky in the sense that there is no direct way to calculate how a change in the hyperparameter value will reduce the loss of your model, so we usually resort to experimentation. i.e we'll use Grid search

  • Grid search is a tuning technique that attempts to compute the optimum values of hyperparameters.

  • It is an exhaustive search that is performed on the specific parameter values of a model.

  • The parameters of the estimator/model used to apply these methods are optimized by cross-validated grid-search over a parameter grid.


How to know the hyperparameters available for an algorithm?

RandomForestClassifier().get_params()

output:

{'bootstrap': True, 'ccp_alpha': 0.0, 'class_weight': None, 'criterion': 'gini', 'max_depth': None, 'max_features': 'auto', 'max_leaf_nodes': None, 'max_samples': None, 'min_impurity_decrease': 0.0, 'min_impurity_split': None, 'min_samples_leaf': 1, 'min_samples_split': 2, 'min_weight_fraction_leaf': 0.0, 'n_estimators': 100, 'n_jobs': None, 'oob_score': False, 'random_state': None, 'verbose': 0, 'warm_start': False}

<IPython.core.display.Javascript object>

  • We can see the names of hyperparameters available and their default values.

  • We can choose which ones to tune


print(np.arange(0.2, 0.7, 0.1))
print(np.arange(5,10))

output:

[0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6] [5 6 7 8 9]



Let's tune Random forest using Grid Search

%%time

# Choose the type of classifier. 
rf1 = RandomForestClassifier(random_state=1)

# Grid of parameters to choose from
parameters = {"n_estimators": [150,200,250],
    "min_samples_leaf": np.arange(5, 10),
    "max_features": np.arange(0.2, 0.7, 0.1),
    "max_samples": np.arange(0.3, 0.7, 0.1),
    "class_weight" : ['balanced', 'balanced_subsample'],
    "max_depth":np.arange(3,4,5),
    "min_impurity_decrease":[0.001, 0.002, 0.003]
             }

# Type of scoring used to compare parameter combinations
acc_scorer = metrics.make_scorer(metrics.recall_score)

# Run the grid search
grid_obj = GridSearchCV(rf1, parameters, scoring=acc_scorer, cv=5, n_jobs= -1, verbose = 2)
# verbose = 2 tells about the number of fits, which can give an idea of how long will the model take in tuning
# n_jobs = -1 so that all CPU cores can be run parallelly to optimize the Search

grid_obj = grid_obj.fit(X_train, y_train)

# Print the best combination of parameters
grid_obj.best_params_

output:









Let's check the best CV score, for the obtained parameters

grid_obj.best_score_

output:

0.7692307692307692


Let's build a model with obtained best parameters

  • We are hard coding the hyperparameters separately so that we don't have to run the grid search again.

output:

# Set the clf to the best combination of parameters
rf1_tuned = RandomForestClassifier(
    class_weight="balanced",
    max_features=0.2,
    max_samples=0.6000000000000001,
    min_samples_leaf=5,
    n_estimators=150,
    max_depth=3,
    random_state=1,
    min_impurity_decrease=0.001,
)
# Fit the best algorithm to the data.
rf1_tuned.fit(X_train, y_train)

output:

RandomForestClassifier(class_weight='balanced', max_depth=3, max_features=0.2, max_samples=0.6000000000000001, min_impurity_decrease=0.001, min_samples_leaf=5, n_estimators=150, random_state=1) <IPython.core.display.Javascript object>



Let's check the model's performance

# Checking recall score on train and validation set
print("Recall on train and validation set")
print(recall_score(y_train, rf1_tuned.predict(X_train)))
print(recall_score(y_val, rf1_tuned.predict(X_val)))
print("")

# Checking precision score on train and validation set
print("Precision on train and validation set")
print(precision_score(y_train, rf1_tuned.predict(X_train)))
print(precision_score(y_val, rf1_tuned.predict(X_val)))
print("")

# Checking accuracy score on train and validation set
print("Accuracy on train and validation set")
print(accuracy_score(y_train, rf1_tuned.predict(X_train)))
print(accuracy_score(y_val, rf1_tuned.predict(X_val)))

output:










  • We can see improvement in validation performance as compared to the model without hyperparameter tuning

  • Recall on both training set and validation set is good and is 88% on the validation


Randomized Search CV

  • Random search is a tuning technique that attempts to compute the optimum values of hyperparameters randomly unlike grid search

Let's tune Random forest using Randomized Search

%%time

# Choose the type of classifier. 
rf2 = RandomForestClassifier(random_state=1)

# Grid of parameters to choose from
parameters = {"n_estimators": [150,200,250],
    "min_samples_leaf": np.arange(5, 10),
    "max_features": np.arange(0.2, 0.7, 0.1), 
    "max_samples": np.arange(0.3, 0.7, 0.1),
    "max_depth":np.arange(3,4,5),
    "class_weight" : ['balanced', 'balanced_subsample'],
    "min_impurity_decrease":[0.001, 0.002, 0.003]
             }

# Type of scoring used to compare parameter combinations
acc_scorer = metrics.make_scorer(metrics.recall_score)

# Run the random search
grid_obj = RandomizedSearchCV(rf2, parameters,n_iter=30, scoring=acc_scorer,cv=5, random_state = 1, n_jobs = -1, verbose = 2)
# using n_iter = 30, so randomized search will try 30 different combinations of hyperparameters
# by default, n_iter = 10

grid_obj = grid_obj.fit(X_train, y_train)

# Print the best combination of parameters
grid_obj.best_params_

output:








Let's check the best CV score, for the obtained parameters

grid_obj.best_score_

output:

0.7538461538461538


Let's build a model with obtained best parameters

# Set the clf to the best combination of parameters
rf2_tuned = RandomForestClassifier(
    class_weight="balanced",
    max_features=0.2,
    max_samples=0.5,
    min_samples_leaf=5,
    n_estimators=150,
    random_state=1,
    max_depth=3,
    min_impurity_decrease=0.003,
)

# Fit the best algorithm to the data.
rf2_tuned.fit(X_train, y_train)

output:

RandomForestClassifier(class_weight='balanced', max_depth=3, max_features=0.2, max_samples=0.5, min_impurity_decrease=0.003, min_samples_leaf=5, n_estimators=150, random_state=1) <IPython.core.display.Javascript object>


  • Different results from the grid and the random search

  • Randomised search might give better results than grid search for the same parameter grid because of the use of cross-validation as fold varies the scores also vary


Let's check the model's performance

# Checking recall score on train and validation set
print("Recall on train and validation set")
print(recall_score(y_train, rf2_tuned.predict(X_train)))
print(recall_score(y_val, rf2_tuned.predict(X_val)))
print("")
print("Precision on train and validation set")
# Checking precision score on train and validation set
print(precision_score(y_train, rf2_tuned.predict(X_train)))
print(precision_score(y_val, rf2_tuned.predict(X_val)))
print("")
print("Accuracy on train and validation set")
# Checking accuracy score on train and validation set
print(accuracy_score(y_train, rf2_tuned.predict(X_train)))
print(accuracy_score(y_val, rf2_tuned.predict(X_val)))

output:










  • The model is performing better than model with default parameters and the performance is similar to the model we received with grid search


Choose a best model and predict the performance on the test set

model = rf1_tuned
# Checking recall score on test set
print("Recall on test set")
print(recall_score(y_test, model.predict(X_test)))
print("")

# Checking precision score on test set
print("Precision on test set")
print(precision_score(y_test, model.predict(X_test)))
print("")

# Checking accuracy score on test set
print("Accuracy on test set")
print(accuracy_score(y_test, model.predict(X_test)))

output:








  • The performance is close to one we observed in the validation set, so there is no overfitting

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