During this we will covered the following topics:
Challenges with text analysis
Key tasks in text analysis
Definition of terms used in text analysis
- Term frequency, inverse document frequency
Representation and features of documents and corpus
Use of regular expressions in parsing text
Metrics used to measure the quality of search results
- Relevance with tf-idf, precision and recall
Intro to Text Mining
Text mining, also known as text analysis, is the process of transforming unstructured text data into meaningful and actionable information.
Data helps companies get smart insights on people’s opinions about a product or service. Think about all the potential ideas that you could get from analyzing emails, product reviews, social media posts, customer feedback, support tickets, etc. On the other side, there’s the dilemma of how to process all this data. And that’s where text mining plays a major role.
Text Mining process
Text mining combines notions of statistics, linguistics, and machine learning to create models that learn from training data and can predict results on new information based on their previous experience.
Text Analytics process
Text analytics, on the other hand, uses results from analyses performed by text mining models, to create graphs and all kinds of data visualizations.
Word frequency can be used to identify the most recurrent terms or concepts in a set of data.
Finding out the most mentioned words in unstructured text can be particularly useful when analyzing customer reviews, social media conversations or customer feedback.
For example, if the words “Expensive”, “Overpriced”, and “Overrated” frequently appear on your customer reviews, it may indicate you need to adjust your prices (or your target market!)
Collocation refers to a sequence of words that commonly appear near each other. The most common types of collocations are unigram, bigrams and trigrams
Bigrams are pair of words that are likely to go together, like “Get started”, “Save time”, or “Decision making”.
Trigrams are a combination of three words, like “Within walking distance” or “Keep in touch”.
Identifying collocations — and counting them as one single word — improves the granularity of the text, allows a better understanding of its semantic structure and, in the end, leads to more accurate text mining results.
Concordance is used to recognize the particular context or instance in which a word or set of words appears. We all know that the human language can be ambiguous: the same word can be used in many different contexts. Analyzing the concordance of a word can help understand its exact meaning based on context.
For example, here are a few sentences extracted from a set of reviews including the word ‘work’:
1. Text Extraction
Text extraction is a text analysis technique that extracts specific pieces of data from a text, like keywords, entity names, addresses, emails, etc. By using text extraction, companies can avoid all the hassle of sorting through their data manually to pull out key information. some of the main tasks of text extraction:
Name Entity Recognition
Most times, it can be useful to combine text extraction with text classification in the same analysis.
Text Extraction: Keyword Extraction
Keyword Extraction: keywords are the most relevant terms within a text and can be used to summarize its content. Utilizing a keyword extractor allows you to index data to be searched, summarize the content of a text or create tag clouds, among other things.
Text Extraction: Name Entity Recognition
Named Entity Recognition allows you to identify and extract the names of companies, organizations or persons from a text.
Text Extraction: Feature Extraction
Feature Extraction helps identify specific characteristics of a product or service in a set of data. For example, if you are analyzing product descriptions, you could easily extract features like “colour”, “brand”, “model”, etc.
2. Text Classification
Text classification is the process of assigning categories (tags) to unstructured text data. This essential task of Natural Language Processing (NLP) makes it easy to organize and structure complex text, turning it into meaningful data. some of the most popular tasks of text classification are:
Text Classification: Topic Analysis
Topic Analysis (also called topic detection, topic modelling, or topic extraction) is a machine learning technique that organizes and understands large collections of text data, by assigning “tags” or categories according to each individual text’s topic or theme.
For example, a support ticket saying “My Online Order Hasn’t Arrived” can be classified as “Shipping Issues”.
Text Classification: Language Detection
Language Detection allows you to classify a text based on its language. One of its most useful applications is automatically routing support tickets to the right geographically located team. Automating this task is quite simple and helps teams save valuable time.
Text Classification: Intent Detection
You could use a text classifier to recognize the intentions or the purpose behind a text automatically. This can be particularly useful when analyzing customer conversations.
For example, you could sift through different outbound sales email responses and identify the prospects which are interested in your product from the ones that are not, or the ones who want to unsubscribe.
Text Classification: Sentiment Analysis
Sentiment analysis (also known as opinion mining or emotion AI) refers to the use of natural language processing to systematically identify, extract, quantify, and study affective states and subjective information. Sentiment analysis is used for many applications, especially in business intelligence. Some examples of applications for sentiment analysis include:
Analyzing the social media discussion around a certain topic
Evaluating survey responses
Determining whether product reviews are positive or negative
3. Text Analysis
Encompasses the processing and representation of text for analysis and learning tasks
Every distinct term is a dimension
Green Eggs and Ham: A 50-D problem!
- Data is Un-structured
Text Analysis – Problem-solving Tasks
Impose a structure on the unstructured/semi-structured text for downstream analysis
Which documents have this word or phrase?
Which documents are about this topic or this entity?
"Understand" the content
Tasks are not an ordered list
Does not represent process
Set of tasks used appropriately depending on the problem addressed
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